Programming Languages

Thesis defence by Paolo Giarrusso

Paolo Giarrusso
Paolo G. Giarrusso
defends his thesis Optimizing and Incrementalizing Collection Queries by AST Transformation.


In modern programming languages, queries on in-memory collections are often more expensive than needed. While database queries can be readily optimized, collection queries often don’t translate trivially to databases, as modern programming languages are far more expressive than databases, supporting both nested data and first-class functions. Collection queries can be optimized and incrementalized by hand, but this reduces modularity, and is often too error-prone to be feasible or to enable maintenance of resulting programs. In this thesis, we optimize and incrementalize such collection queries to free programmers from such burdens. Resulting programs are expressed in the same core language, so that they can be subjected to other standard optimizations. To enable optimizing collection queries which occur inside programs, we develop a staged variant of the Scala collection API that reifies queries as ASTs. On top of this interface, we adapt domain-specific optimizations from the fields of programming languages and databases; among others, we rewrite queries to use indexes chosen by programmers. Thanks to the use of indexes we show significant speedups in our experimental evaluation, with an average of 12x and a maximum of 12800x. To incrementalize higher-order programs by program transformation, we extend finite differencing [Paige and Koenig, 1982; Blakeley et al., 1986; Gupta and Mumick, 1999] and develop the first approach to incrementalization by program transformation for higher-order programs. Base programs are transformed to derivatives, programs that transform input changes to output changes. We prove that our incrementalization approach is correct: We develop the theory underlying this approach for simply-typed and untyped λ-calculus, and discuss extensions to System F. Derivatives often need to reuse results produced by base programs: to enable such reuse, we extend work by Liu and Teitelbaum [1995] to higher-order programs, and develop and prove correct a program transformation, converting higher-order programs to cache-transfer-style. For efficient incrementalization, it is necessary to choose and incrementalize by hand appropriate primitive operations. We incrementalize a significant subset of collection operations and perform case studies, showing order-of-magnitude speedups both in practice and in asymptotic complexity.